Optical Fiber Network

This section generally deals with the concept of fiber optic network and its importance in the electricity industry.

Many of the major challenges facing the power industry to provide safe electricity for homes or workshops require separate systems to protect employees against high voltage.

For this purpose, many facilities and offices use fiber optic cable to connect the device to their control and monitoring system.

What is the Optical Fiber?

Optical Fiber is one of the best tools of data transportation with high speed for long distances.

In fact, optical fiber (Optical filaments) are long, thin, transparent strands of glass (silica) or plastic, about the size of a human hair, that are organized into a tangled coil called an optical cable.

These optical filaments can transmit light from one end to the other, and despite the limitations of conventional and copper cable networks, they have a high bandwidth through which a variety of video and audio data can be used. Transmitted data from computer networks, Internet, etc. with a bandwidth of more than 10 GB/S.

Optical fibers with such a high bandwidth compared to copper cables and due to less data transmission delay compared to satellite telecommunications, are one of the most desirable and important equipment for data and information transmission.

Purpose of using optical fiber network in electricity network:

  1. Protection of transmission lines against instantaneous currents and short circuits
  2. Receiving information from power plants and substations in operation.
  3. Necessity of automation of distribution and over-distribution network, especially in sensitive areas of the network.
  4. Prevention of unwanted blackouts.
  5. Precise planning for the proper operation of substations and power plants.
  6. Coordination and control of network frequency both in the production sector and in the transmission sector.
  7. Make communication between dispatching The main distribution with other sub-dispatching.
  8. Make a communication in order to cover telecommunications
  9. and connect them to all regional dispatching and national dispatching.

The history of Optical Fiber

Human efforts to use light to transmit information and to use optical communications in general date back to the nineteenth century.

But in fact, in 1960, with the invention of the laser beam, the first steps were taken to establish optical fiber communications.

Then, in 1866, the theory of light conduction in glass fibers and fibers became operational, which led to the creation of optical cables that were much cheaper and lighter than copper cables, and at the same time more cost-effective. The possibility and capacity of data transmission by these optical cables is and is several thousand times more than copper cables.

In the 1980s, fiber optic technology was so developed that by the mid-1980s, about two million kilometers of optical cable were installed, commissioned and operated worldwide.

Optical Fiber production in Iran:

The history of research activities and production of Optical Fibers in Iran dates back to the early 1980s which eventually led to the creation of a fiber optic production complex in Tehran and then the operation of a fiber optic production plant in Yazd.

In 1994, the production of fiber optics with a capacity of about 50,000 kilometers per year began in Iran and the use of optical cables began in major cities of the country.

Optical Fiber application:

Application in medical science

Optical fibers can be used to diagnose many diseases and in medical tests, such as laser surgery, dosimetry or cancer measurement, and applications of optical fibers.

Optical fibers are also used in endoscopic devices.

Application in lighting systems

The use of Optical Fiber in lighting systems has emerged in the late twentieth century, and due to its advantages such as low heat and the absence of dangerous radiation and the possibility of using safe and pure light without side effects, fiber optic technology in lighting systems It is developing rapidly.

Application in telecommunications

One of the most common applications of fiber optics is laser data transmission.

Military Applications

Examples include the use of fiber optics in the military industry, such as missile control, radar antenna communication, and submarine communications.

Optical Fiber structure

Optical Fiber consist of several layers and the major part which include:

Core, Cladding and Buffer Coating.

The innermost layer is called the core, which is usually made of pure glass and in some cases made of completely transparent and reflective plastic, which of course is to reduce manufacturing costs, although cores made of plastic are of less than quality. They have glass and are mostly used to carry data over short distances.

The outer layer of the core is the shell, which is usually made of glass or plastic and with its plating surface reflects light into the core and prevents light rays from leaving.

In conventional optical fibers, the diameter of the core and the shell together is about 125 microns, the size of a human hair.

The outer layer of the shell usually forms a protective plastic cover which holds the entire cable in its heart, which can contain hundreds of different optical fibers.

This layer protects the optical fibers from external damage. The diameter of a cable is less than an inch.

Optical Fiber types

Optical Fibers are divided to two major groups of: single mode and multimode

The core diameters of these fibers are different, and accordingly, the path that light travels through these fibers is different.

The core diameters of single-state cables are smaller than those of multi-state cables, so light beams are transmitted in only one direction, whereas in multi-state cables, because of the larger core diameter, optical signals with wavelengths They can move in different directions.

Steps of making optical fiber

The steps of making fiber optic cable are as follows:

Heating polishing

At this stage, the innermost layer of the cable, the glass core, is passed through a tube containing chlorine and oxygen gases with a temperature of more than 1800 ° C, with the aim of smoothing and polishing the core surface.

Supplementary polishing

At this stage, the polishing operation is completed and the glass cracks and crevices are repaired and eliminated by passing the core through the Freon, chlorine and oxygen gases.

Layering the veneer section

At this stage, silicon tetrachloride and phosphoryl oxychloride enter the glass tubes with helium in the gaseous state and a torch moves on the tube at a speed of about 200 mm / min, which raises the temperature to more than 1900 ° C. It gets cold.

As a result of the sudden change in temperature and rising temperature, the particles adhere to the walls in the form of sediment, and the glass surface becomes uniform and in accordance with the original structure.

Advantages and disadvantages of fiber optic cable compared to metal cables

Here are some of the most important benefits of fiber optics over metal cables

  • Lighter and cheaper fiber optics compared to copper cable
  • Last longer
  • More sensitivity
  • Less noise
  • Quick responding
  • Occupies less volume
  • The optical fiber transmission capacity is several thousand times that of copper cable
  • Low resistance of fiber optic path compared to metal cables, both copper and aluminum, increases the bit rate.

Some disadvantages of optical fiber transmission lines

Expensive for small and ordinary networks and specialized installation of optical fibers and their equipment are the disadvantages of this type of cable compared to copper wires. Peymabargh Engineering Company, in order to develop its executive operations and use modern technologies, one of the disadvantages of fiber optics is less flexibility than copper cables.

Also, since we do not deal with electrical signals in fiber optics, we have to use equipment such as amplifiers and optical detectors, which are somewhat expensive. Also, fiber optics is not used to transmit electricity and can only be used to transmit information in the form of light rays.

Connecting fiber optics to each other is also very difficult and time consuming and requires a high level of technical staff.

Has implemented several projects in the field of design and implementation of fiber optic networks, some of which are as follows:

Optical Fiber Network Projects

Optical Fabric networks

Introduction to some of the optical power network projects of Peymabargh Co.

As you know the optical fiber network is one of the best and quickest ways of data transportation.

The unique property of optical fiber is its high bandwidth

One of the best methods of data transmission today, which has replaced copper cables and supports a wider range than other methods, is the use of fiber optics in telecommunication projects.

Optical fiber properties include:

Data transfer speed, ease of installation and service, and ultimately its high accuracy. Peymabargh Engineering Company, in order to develop its executive operations and use modern technologies, has implemented several projects in the field of design and implementation of fiber optic network, some of which are as follows: